Tramadol is a pain-relieving medication just like an opioid. It acts on the central nervous system to address the pain. It comes with the brand name Durell, Conzip, Ultram, Zytram, Tridural, and many more.
It is highly recommended to cure moderate to moderately severe kinds of pain in adults for example backaches are also recommended for curing chronic pains such as pain associated with arthritis. Physicians prescribe to buy tramadol 50 mgand time table is designed for the drug intake in the form of quantity and timing to cure pain. It is highly recommended for the following type of pain-causing illnesses:
- Neuropathic pain
- Post-operative pain
- Labor pain associated with childbirth
- Lower back pain
MECHANISM OF ACTION:
The pain-relieving mechanism is as follows:
It is a centrally acting drug and it acts in two ways to help alleviate pain. The racemic mixture consists of two pharmacologically active ingredients and they turn into active metabolites. The primary metabolite o-desmethyl tramadol is the agonist of the opioid receptor site in the central nervous system and secondly, it does the inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and is termed as SNRI (serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor). Both the mechanisms complement each other in modulating the response and perception of pain.
It also acts on the pain modulators present in the CNS and also on the non-neuronal inflammatory markers and immune mediators, so it has a broad range of targets.it targets both pain and inflammation.
It also has other properties such as anti-depressants, anxiolytic, and anti-shivering. Also helpful in addressing all the symptoms associated with pain.
AVAILABLE FORMS OF TRAMADOL:
There are 3 types on the basis of their onset of action and type of pain alleviating property and they are as follows:
- Immediate or rapidly acting: It comprises of solid or the tablet/pill form, also comes in the capsule form. Ingestion is by mouth and it is rapidly acting with the onset of action occurring in less than an hour. There is also the liquid form taken as syrups, proper measurements should be ensured to reap maximum benefits, to facilitate this the liquid preparation comes with a measuring spoon. It is used as a need base pain relieving medicine. Recommended for the acute type of pain.
- Extended-release form: It is recommended for around-the-clock treatment of pain. Very effective in managing chronic pains.
- Injectable form: It comprises the injectable form of medication.
The dose is dependent on the medical condition of the patient or the response to the previous dosage is taken already. The maximum prescribed dose is 400 milligrams per day with the division of dose being in such a way that it is taken every 4 to 6 hours. In elderly patients, the maximum dose is 300 milligrams in a day. To reduce the adverse effects associated with the medicine initiation should be done with smaller doses then a gradual increase should be observed. The dose should not exceed the maximum limit, if pain persists frequency should be increased or the total time period is increased.
USUAL ADULT DOSE:
For individuals who are 17 years or older Tramadol 50mg to 100 mg orally taken every 4 to 6 hours is recommended. If rapid analgesic onset is not required then a loading dose of 25 milligrams once a day is taken then an increment of 25 milligrams is done every third day to reach a dosage of 25 milligrams four times a day. A maximum of 400 milligrams can be taken in a single day.
ADULT DOSE FOR CHRONIC PAINS:
Extended-release preparations are taken for chronic pain management and 100 milligrams per day is the recommended dose for 18 years or older individuals. An increment of 100 milligrams every 5 days can be done till the effective dose is reached with minimal side effects. The maximum dose per day is 300 milligrams.
GERIATRIC DOSE FOR ACUTE AND CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT:
In elderly minimum, the possible dose is advised. Above 75 years maximum of 300 milligrams per day for immediate-release preparation is prescribed. For chronic pains, the dosage should be as minimal as possible and should not exceed 300 milligrams in a day.
It is not a recommended medicine for children so should not be used.
Tramadol is contraindicated under certain medical conditions, and if consumed can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, proper consultation and history taking are compulsory to assess the health of the patient or to look for any reason that makes using tramadol a contraindication. The conditions are as follows:
- Allergic to tramadol
- Asthmatic or any breathing-related disorder
- Paralytic ileus or any bowel obstruction
- Alcohol intoxication
- If a recent consumption of sedatives, narcotics, or tranquilizers was there.
- Contraindicated among children less than 12 years of age.
- In less than 18 years who have undergone any surgical procedure.
- Head trauma or epilepsy or any seizure history.
- Sleep apnea
- Liver or kidney disease
- Urination problems such as in BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia)
- Mental illness
- Suicidal tendency
- Also not advised in pregnant women as can affect the fetus.
- Sleep apnea
- Abdominal cramping
- Mood swings
- Difficult urination
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Unexplained fever
- Serotonin syndrome/toxicity
- Muscle twitching
- Unusual agitation
- Allergic reaction
- Misuse can lead to addiction that can lead to overdose and death.
If an individual notices any of the above-mentioned side effects then prompt medical help should be availed. Most of the common side effects go away after a couple of days but if they persist any longer or any of the other symptoms that are serious proper consultation should be there.
TRAMADOL AS A SLEEP AID:
Tramadol causes sedation and sleepiness but it should not be considered as a sleeping pill as it has a potential hazard of addiction leading to overdose and serious life-threatening complications. There are other best sleeping pills UKavailable to cure insomnia.
Tramadol is a very promising drug to cure moderate to moderately severe types of pain. Only taken after proper consultation to ensure justified use and to avoid any unwanted effects.